A Melancholic Celebration of Mendelssohn’s Life: A Schumann Analysis

Note: This is the analysis that got a 90. And thus resulted in me getting a 93.something for the semester. Which means I was less than a point away from a true A. It’s fine. Everything’s fine.

Composing their works during the Romantic Era of music during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Robert Schumann and Felix Mendelssohn maintained an acquaintanceship beginning from their first encounter; Schumann, a great admirer of Mendelssohn’s compositions, noted that he found him to be humble and modest upon their first meeting. As the years progressed, the two would perform together and support each other’s compositions until Mendelssohn succumbed to a series of strokes on November 4, 1847 (as documented in the subtitle of Schumann’s Opus 68: 28 “In Memoriam”). The piece is featured in Schumann’s Album for the Young, which is a collection of works composed for his daughters. It is believed by many that the pieces present in the album are highly suitable to be played by amateur pianists and beginners, therefore literally acting as an album of music for the young. While the composition shares many similarities to other music in the album due to the collection’s etude-like nature, the piece is given enhanced color through its usage of parallel asymmetrical form and secondary dominants.

Measures 1-4 and 5-10 form a parallel asymmetrical period form, both phrases moving in ascending motion. In both phrases, the second note in the soprano is a passing tone, therefore smoothing the transition between the anacrusic note and the next note in the chord (C#), which is a minor third below. The first phrase reaches the piece’s highest pitch (F#) just prior to moving to the half cadence on E Major (V), while the second phrase begins with the same musical information, yet continues past the point where Phrase I concluded (the first beat of Measure 8 being the equivalent to the first beat of Measure 4) as a method of adding onto the sentence. The theme of the first phrase returns on the “and” of Beat 2 in Measure 14 and continues through Measure 18’s first beat. The phrase on the “and” of Beat 4 of the same measure begins the same musically and rhythmically, although it soon deviates just before reaching the fermata.

In addition to form, it is crucial to note that there are three key modulations that provide chromaticism to the piece. While the first modulation (from A Major to E Major) takes place in Measure 6 and ushers into the secondary dominant of F#7 (V6/5 in the key of B Major [vi]), it is the second modulation—from E Major to B minor—that truly adds energy to the piece through the upward-moving sequence that takes place in Measures 11-13. The sequence begins in B minor with the utilization of natural accidentals, moves the entire sentence up one whole step in Measure 12, and then returns to a similar motive to M. 11 in Measure 13, concluding the sequence with dissonance as a B Major chord (V in the key of E Major [V]) is used. Dissonance is also a major contributor to the listener’s sense of the piece reaching its end in Measure 20, when in lieu of the expected V chord (EM), an e#m7 is played instead, altering the root note of the expected chord up one half step. The piece then continues through to the first ending, falling on a perfect authentic cadence until the anacrusic note. In both endings, the bass notes reach the lowest pitch (A1), arpeggiating through the chord until settling on A3. The second ending in the final measure then incorporates neighbor tones to provide a trill-like closure, highlighting the beauty of the supertonic note (B) against the median (C#) as the composition draws to a melancholic and nostalgic close, much like Felix Mendelssohn’s life.

At several points in the work, the listener expects the phrase to conclude on tonic; however, the usage of secondary dominants provides a faint dissonance, an uncomfortable settling. Although the composer arranged several key modulations, the listener still feels as though the piece is returning “home” in the key of A Major. A hypothesis is that because there are three repetitions of the opening sentence (which is completely in A Major), the listener becomes familiar with A; even when the piece modulates, their ear is still tonicizing A.

This is not a practice unfamiliar to Felix Mendelssohn himself. His contralto aria from the oratorio Elijah, “O Rest in the Lord,” is mostly written in the key of C Major and never truly changes its key signature, although there are several accidentals in the B section of the song, suggesting the possible usage of secondary dominants. However, as the contralto concludes her last “wait patiently for him,” the orchestra returns to the true tonic key. The final secondary dominant takes place as she says, “He shall give thee thy heart’s desires.” This is highly unexpected for the listener; every other time she has sung this line it has been on a V chord. However, once again, the piece returns to C Major and ends with a beautiful dissonance caused by the leading tone/tonic note neighbor trill in the flute section.

Although Schumann and Mendelssohn composed works for two completely separate reasons—one for a young pianist’s songbook and one for an oratorio—the composers utilized many of the same musical concepts. Although it is likely due to either their close musical relationship or living during the same period, it could be inferred that Schumann borrowed ideas from his style in order to pay his respects to his role model-turned-friend and carry his legacy into the future.


A Creative Analysis of The Harmonious Blacksmith

Note: Yeah, this wasn’t my best analysis. And yet this got a 94, and my Schumann one (which was much better) only got a 90. I’m still bitter.

George Frederic Handel’s “Air and Variations” from Suite no. 5 in E Major, HWV 430, For Harpsichord, commonly nicknamed “The Harmonious Blacksmith,” is a Baroque-era piece consisting of two initial phrases followed by five variations of the main theme. Although it is unknown why it is famously known as “The Harmonious Blacksmith,” the musicality of the composition involves a sense of increasing intensity in the first variation through the usage of sixteenth notes in the right hand, much like the increasing, rhythmic intensity of work that a blacksmith performs.

The formation of the bars is unique due to the first phrase being anacrusic, while the second (and both phrases of the first variation) is crusic.

The first phrase’s melodic line ascends, reaching its highest point at C#5. The continuous movement through the usage of eighth notes that move in an Alberti-like fashion provides a light, harpsichord-like feel, even when performed on other instruments. The phrase is repeated, contributing to the growth of the overall composition through the restatement of the introduction. The second phrase then begins with a melodic line that also rises and then descends back down to tonic, creating a mild contrast with the first phrase. Additionally, there is a greater incorporation of sixteenth notes and first inversions (as well as a cadential 6/4 inversion in measure 6), giving the piece a faster feel and the inclusion of more non-chord tones. The second phrase contributes a B section which includes various non-chord tones and even a g#m chord (iii in the key of E Major). It then returns to the structure of the first phrase with an I-V-I pattern.

The first variation on the theme then follows the same line, but jumps down to the B and back up to the melodic line throughout both phrases. It serves as a propeller into each following variation, each new one developing the theme further.

“Air and Variations” is one of Handel’s most performed works for various reasons. Its light texture and moderato tempo gives it an ability to be performed on various instruments, as well as its chords being utilized from both the tonic and dominant keys. It is truly a unique composition that applies various theory principles.

A Creative Analysis of Mozart’s K.315 A

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Two Minuets is a notable piano composition of the Classical era in Western music. Common in the music of its time, K.315/a has a light texture, relying on the tonality from the chord structure. The chord structure is reinforced through the usage of Alberti basslines and strong chord progressions, encouraging the movement of harmony throughout the piece. The piece is unified through its use of hidden motivic unity, and repetition of rhythms. The piece explores contrast between the Allegretto and Trio sections through differing orders of rhythmic patterns, interval sizes, and progressions. The minuet’s shape is formed through the range utilized as well as through the form of the overall line.

In the Allegretto composed in the key of C Major, each phrase begins with an anacrusis on the tonic note, with primary movement occurring between tonic and the dominant. Each phrase begins with an anacrusis, as indicated by the singular quarter note in the first measure. The treble staff’s pattern then leaps down to G (the dominant in a C Major triad) and ends the phrase on the dominant as it approaches its first rest. The next phrase continues from where the dominant lies, still maintaining most movement within the chord of C Major (with emphasis on the notes that spell out the triad—C, E, and G). All this occurs accompanied by an Alberti bass pattern, which utilizes eighth-note arpeggios that include the first, third, and fifth notes in a triad. After the imperfect cadence in the fifth measure, Mozart transitions into G Major briefly, incorporating the use of inversions, sevenths, and triads raising F to F#. The G Major section then ends with a perfect cadence, moving from a D Major triad back to tonic. As the minuet returns to C Major and the Alberti bass pattern returns, the treble staff returns to its original pattern as well.

The trio section has various similarities as well as several points of contrast. In the minuet, the opening motive is a chord followed by the idea of thirds. In the B section, the order is reversed, moving as third-triad in lieu of triad-third. A point of contrast is in the range of the minuet and trio. While the minuet’s primary range lies within the staffs (with rare use of ledger lines), the trio’s pitches are primarily found in the upper ranges of both the treble and bass staffs. Furthermore, while the minuet is consistent in utilizing the progression of dominant chords (with primary movement between the I and V in the key), the trio’s motion is mostly stepwise.

The motivic unity is present in several ways. Both the minuet and the trio begin with an anacrusis on Beat 1. They also follow the similar rhythmic pattern of (where “q” represents the quarter note):

q (Bar line) q q q (Bar line) q

Furthermore, the Alberti bass pattern is present in all sections of the piece. The arpeggios that shape the pattern provide a sense of stability that connects the sections together; they also add extra movement, allowing listeners to truly feel the simple triple time signature.

Evidenced by the information above, W.A. Mozart’s K.315/a is a keyboard masterpiece, highlighting all of the greatest features of classical Western music: emphasis on dominant chords, lightness of texture, the utilization of Alberti bass, the usage of a compound ternary (ABA) form, and motivic unity. To this day, works of his such as this continue to inspire musicians and composers all throughout the Western world.

An Introduction to Voice Leading

Note: This was written during my first semester of music theory. Therefore, while the information written here is true, one does not have to follow all of these guidelines for good partwriting.

an introduction to

Voice leading is the process of connecting harmonic progressions. Voice leading connects musical lines, giving a sense of direction for the piece’s melody.

When learning how to voice lead, it is important that one take heed of the following guidelines: keep the rhythm as simple as possible, ensure that each note in the melody is a member of the chord so that its produced sound harmonizes with the other tones, follow a stepwise motion (more formally known as “conjunct”) with a single focal point (often the melody’s highest note), and follow the steps that tendency tones “tend” to resolve to. For example, scale degree 7 has a strong desire to resolve up to scale degree 1. When writing leaps, one should avoid augmented intervals, 7ths, and intervals larger than an octave.

Voicing is the practice of arranging the spacing of a chord. The first step one must take when learning to write in a four-part texture (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass) is deciding whether to write in an open or closed structure. In closed structure, it is important that no more than an octave can be observed between the Soprano and the Tenor, while in open structure, there is an allowance for an octave or more between the Soprano and Tenor voices.

However, even when writing in open structure, it is important for a beginning part-writer to take note of two main conventions. First, it is important that voices do not cross unless there is a musical reason to do so. For example, in Tavener’s “The Lamb” written for SATB chorus, there is frequent crossover between the Soprano and Alto voices, causing dissonance. However, traditionally one would not want the Alto voice to cross above the Soprano; it is usually not desired for a voice part to go above or below the one before it. Second, when spacing, there should be no more than an octave separating the Soprano and Alto, and the Alto and the Tenor (therefore resulting in no more than two octaves between the Soprano and the Tenor).

When writing, voice pairs are able to move in four ways: upper voices may move contrary to the bass, in oblique motion, parallel motion, or similar. It is also possible for an interval to remain stagnant, which is referred to as static. It is often preferred to avoid parallel 5ths and octaves in part writing, as they undermine the importance of the individual parts (Kostka). Doing so results in an objectionable parallel, which is generally avoided in tonal music written prior to the twentieth century.

In root position part writing, it is important to observe the guidelines of four- and three-part textures. In four-part textures, all notes belonging to the triad are present, with the root note repeated (“doubled”). In three-part textures, it is important to include the root and the third of the triad. If one chooses not to utilize the fifth, then the root will be doubled; however, the third cannot be omitted. It is also important to note that in both textures, the leading tone (scale degree 7) is usually not doubled, because it has a strong tendency tone, giving it a desire to move to tonic.

When writing parts that are a 4th and 5th apart, the most frequently used method (the rule of thumb, as learned in lectures) is to hold the common tone between the chords in the same voice. For example, when moving from a C Major triad (spelled as C, E, and G) when the Alto voice is the G to a G Major chord (G, B, and D), the Alto voice will hold the common tone of G (the note that is present in both triads) while the other voices will move in the same direction as the bass by step.

Another method (the first variation) is to move the upper voices in the same direction, but contrary to the bass. It is important to note that if the leading tone is in an inner voice (Alto or Tenor), then it does not need to resolve to scale degree 1.

The third method (the second variation) is when one note holds the common tone while another moves by step, and the other moves by a fourth. Although this is normally an acceptable progression, one must be careful, as this can cause voice overlap.

When writing with roots that are a 3rd or 6th apart, there will be two common tones. For example, when moving from C Major (spelled C, E, G) to E minor (spelled E, G, B), there are two notes in common—E and G. In four-part textures, the two voices with the common tone will hold it, while the remaining moves by step. In three-part textures, it is important to include the 5th of the second triad so that it can be evident to listeners that the entire chord has changed, rather than having performed an inversion of the same chord.

When writing roots a 2nd or 7th apart, there will be no common tones. In both four- and three-part textures, the upper voices will always move contrary to the bass. It is rare that progressions of a second lead to a proper cadence; they usually indicate that a musical phrase is not yet complete. One might be familiar with the deceptive progression (V-VI), which gives off a questioning tone rather than the comfort of a resolution to tonic.

The chapter* concludes with a brief explanation of how to write music for transposing instruments. As a double bassist (in spite of my primary academic concentration being voice), I have often had to transpose music down an octave, or change the tuning of my strings to match that of a cello’s when playing cello suites. Therefore, this section was very useful for me and many other students who may need to learn how to transpose their own music in the future.

In order to convey unity in tonal music, one must follow a sequence. A tonal sequence will maintain the piece’s key, while intervals may change. A real sequence will transpose to a different key. An example of a real sequence can be found in Disney’s The Hunchback of Notre Dame’s “God Help the Outcasts” (Schwartz), in which the song’s original key of Bb Major raises Bb and Eb to B Natural and E Natural as the chorus concludes their part and Esmeralda begins singing a new verse in C Major.

However, it is important to note that imitations can mimic real sequences. In a real imitation, although one voice may transpose the melody, another might repeat the original pattern. Therefore, this cannot be considered a real sequence. In a modified sequence, repetitions of the pattern will be neither tonal nor real.

In harmonic progressions, the strongest progressions are those of 4ths and 5ths. An example chord progression would be:

I IV vii I

ii V I


In this progression written, I chose to begin and end with intervals of 4ths, to begin and end on tonic, and to include a couple minor chords to provide some color. When moving up a 5th or down a 4th, this is considered following a circle-of-fifths sequence. Below is an example of the progression, with the chords written in the key of G Major.

G C fm G

am D G


In the circle of fifths, one may observe that it can be known that C Major is the fourth chord in the progression, because when moving one position to the left on the circle, the key of C Major can be found. D Major is known to be the 5th due to its being one position to the right on the circle. The other chords can then be found using this process as a guideline.

*This information came from Stefan Kostka’s textbook Tonal Harmony, 5th edition.

Personal Development as a Student Music Therapist

Music Therapy as a Profession

To me, music therapy is a profession dedicated to enhancing the mental, emotional, and physical health of participants through the use of musical interventions. Such interventions may include (but are not limited to) lyric discussion, active music listening (giving the client the option to choose a desired form of music to listen to), neurologic music therapy applications (addressing rehabilitation and maintenance of functional behaviors), guided imagery, and music-assisted relaxation. Interventions for clients are carefully chosen to suit their needs, which is why another important aspect of music therapy is the development of therapeutic rapport between a therapist and client. Through the building of trust and secure attachment, the therapist is given the ability to develop an understanding of their client’s goals, strengths, and weaknesses. As an aspiring student music therapist, my philosophy is that music as therapy is the use of creative methods to make medical and psychotherapeutic experiences more personal and enjoyable for the client, as well as actively affecting the wiring of the nervous system.

Critical Skills for Music Therapists

Musically, every music therapist should develop effective transposition, theoretical, sight reading, and aural skills in order to serve their client effectively. While working in the field, there will be many experiences when a client may want to use a song that the therapist has not previously heard or learned the chords for. However, to maintain professionalism, it is important to communicate to the client that they have a choice in the musical selections used, and that they do not need to worry about the therapist’s ability to perform. Rather, music therapists are by definition professional musicians, and therefore must develop advanced musicianship techniques. If a song that a client wants to hear/play is in a key difficult for the therapist or client to sing/perform, then the therapist must take it upon themselves to transpose on sight, memorizing the key signatures and chord progressions. A music therapist must also use musical elements to communicate transitions, emotions, and key phrases in the music through the use of vocal dynamics (i.e. crescendo to communicate anticipation of the next verse, diminuendo to communicate a change in a story’s theme, etc.), tempo (i.e. accelerando to communicate emotions such as excitement and happiness, ritardando to transition to a song’s cadence, etc.), and instrumental patterns (e.g. the choice to strum or fingerpick on the guitar).

Non-musically, a music therapist must develop self-awareness. Not only must one be aware of their personal strengths and weaknesses, but they must maintain awareness of how their behaviors are reflected in their work. This means an awareness of the vocal dynamics they often speak at, and reflecting upon whether or not it may be too quiet or loud for their population. For example, a geriatric music therapist with a typically quiet voice may want to work towards speaking louder, in hopes of being heard by clients who may be dealing with hearing trouble. Similarly, a therapist with a consistently stoic facial expression may want to participate in improvisation classes or work towards expressing emotions more evidently, especially if they are working with young children who are still developing an understanding of the six basic human emotions.

Critical Traits for Music Therapists

Music therapists must be resilient. As a psychological, medical, educational, dramatic, and musical profession, music therapy is arguably one of the most difficult professions in the nation. As a student, one must complete three practicum experiences, an educational field experiences, a recreational music course, 180 pre-internship hours, the interview of a board-certified therapist, several psychology courses, and music courses on a primary and secondary instrument, all while participating in University ensembles and completing core university requirements. On the way to board-certification, many lose hold of that dream that initially led them to where they are, and they walk away from the profession. However, the dedicated music therapy student will find a way to succeed; they will face the obstacles with confidence and determination, knowing that their efforts will be worth it when they receive their certification and are licensed to work in the community. Furthermore, upon receiving certification, one must also understand when it is beneficial to take a break from working. As a music therapist, Compassion Fatigue is a common occurrence, especially when working in palliative and chronic illness care. However, in order to maintain personal health, it is important for a music therapist to understand the importance of self-care, and remember that although they may have the privilege to work in a career they love, they are still a person separate from their job.

Personal Skills, Strengths, and Weaknesses

Personally, I believe that my most well-developed skills and traits are my optimism and persistence. I am a firm believer in stressing progress rather than comparison when working with others; I want individuals to understand that they do not need to have any prior musical training to participate in therapeutic interventions. Rather, I want them to focus on where they are today, and how much they have grown over the course of treatment. Furthermore, I am persistent. Throughout my entire life, I have been recognized for my work ethic; whenever I have a goal, I put in all of my energy to achieve it. This means that no matter how difficult it becomes, I will find a way to help my client achieve their own goals, and I will make sure to show them that I will do whatever I can to ensure that all needs are met.

As a student music therapist, I believe that my main weakness is my performance anxiety. Anxiety was not a major hindrance to my musical performance originally; however, this past year, it has become a major stumbling block. Both musically and socially, I have found increased difficulty in making eye contact, communicating with peers and professors, initiating conversation, and performing in front of trained musicians. I am unsure if this is the result of an anxiety disorder (as I have avoided psychoanalytic therapy my entire life); however, I plan to begin attending counseling sessions to improve my interpersonal and musical skills to ensure that I am able to continue to pursue music therapy as a profession.

My Future in Music Therapy

While the field of music therapy is highly interesting to me, unfortunately it does not seem likely that I will be continuing in the major. Due to an unsuccessful audition, I will not be able to study here at Baldwin Wallace. Although I could hypothetically audition again in the Fall semester, I do not believe that I will be able to perform well under the pressure of presenting in front of professors whom have previously rejected me. On the contrary, in the event of a successful audition, paying for two extra years of liberal arts college is too difficult financially. Therefore, I am auditioning at Cleveland State University (where I would plan to double major Music Therapy and Education), Wright State University, and Wittenberg University to pursue a Bachelor of Music Education. After, I may consider Post-Baccalaureate studies in order to prepare to take the Board Examination.

Furthermore, I am switching to a Music Education major due to an increased interest in educating children with mild and moderate special needs. After completing a field experience in a fourth grade resource room, I have discovered that I am passionate about teaching young children who live with intellectual disabilities. I want to teach the students how to become musicians as well, rather than solely focusing on using music as an intervention. Therefore, I believe that I may be needed more in the field of education than I am in therapy.

Although I am not continuing in the study of music therapy for the time being, I believe that what I have learned in this course will benefit me greatly as a special needs music teacher someday, in the event that I do not become a music therapist. At any given time in a special education classroom, there will be children with multiple types of disabilities, ranging from Attention Deficit Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, and other common exceptionalities. Therefore, learning how individuals living with these conditions will aide me in providing the highest quality education and care, showing them that no matter where their musical and non-musical abilities lie, they can always find peace and comfort in music-making. Anyone can learn how to make beautiful music, if only someone gives them the chance.